300 km long, Turkana Lake is located in Kenya and lies along the Rift Valley.
The waters come from the Omo River, which crosses the whole of Ethiopia and, with a wide delta, flows into the lake. Two dams have been built on the River Omo, and a third dam is under construction: the available water is considerably reduced.
Turkana has no emissaries: all water entering the lake evaporates.
It is estimated that there has been a reduction of some metres in height over the last 100 years.
These phenomena have led to the formation of very salty and dry soils.
In the Loiyangalani Oasis, it rains very little (about 100 mm per year).
The excellent quality water coming from the slopes of Mount Kulal (located east at about 40 km and about 2300 meters high) percolates in the subsoil, rises and emerges in correspondence with the fault parallel to the Rift Valley, on which the Oasis is placed, with thermal springs, temperatures between 35 C° and 39 C°, with constant flow all year round, regardless of the weather conditions.
The area is inhabited by different ethnic groups: the Turkana, the Samburu, the Rendille, which are nomadic populations dedicated to pastoralism, and the Elmolo, sedentary, who live along the shores of the lake and practise fishing.
Current climate change is making drought dramatic, which has led to famine, especially in the North, right up to Somalia.
Before that, nomadic populations and their goats moved monthly from one area to another and the grazing land could regenerate in the rainy season. In recent years, however, the nomadic populations, no longer finding food for their animals, have become sedentary, but continuing to practice pastoralism.
The anthropic and animal load on the Oasis has increased (there are 5,000 people), with a reduction of the vegetated part and grazing.